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C Program to Find the Sum of Each Row and Column of a Matrix

In this program, we will write a C program to find the sum of each row and column of a matrix.

Problem Statement

We need to take a matrix as input from the user and calculate the sum of each row and column of the matrix. Then, we have to display the sum of each row and column on the screen.

Solution:

#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
    int rows, columns, i, j, sum = 0;

    // Get the number of rows and columns from the user
    printf("Enter the number of rows: ");
    scanf("%d", &rows);
    printf("Enter the number of columns: ");
    scanf("%d", &columns);

    int matrix[rows][columns];

    // Get the elements of the matrix from the user
    printf("Enter the elements of the matrix: \n");
    for (i = 0; i < rows; i++) {
        for (j = 0; j < columns; j++) {
            scanf("%d", &matrix[i][j]);
        }
    }

    // Calculate the sum of each row
    printf("Sum of each row: ");
    for (i = 0; i < rows; i++) {
        sum = 0;
        for (j = 0; j < columns; j++) {
            sum += matrix[i][j];
        }
        printf("%d ", sum);
    }

    // Calculate the sum of each column
    printf("\nSum of each column: ");
    for (i = 0; i < columns; i++) {
        sum = 0;
        for (j = 0; j < rows; j++) {
            sum += matrix[j][i];
        }
        printf("%d ", sum);
    }

    return 0;
}

Output

Explanation:

  1. We first include the standard input-output library stdio.h in the program using the #include preprocessor directive.
  2. Then, we declare the main function using the int main() syntax.
  3. We declare four variables rows, columns, i, and j as integers, and initialize the sum variable to 0.
  4. We use the printf function to prompt the user to enter the number of rows and columns of the matrix.
  5. We use the scanf function to read the number of rows and columns entered by the user and store them in the rows and columns variables respectively.
  6. We declare a two-dimensional integer array matrix with rows rows and columns columns.
  7. We use a nested for loop to read the elements of the matrix entered by the user and store them in the matrix array.
  8. We use another nested for loop to calculate the sum of each row of the matrix. In each iteration of the outer loop, we reset the sum variable to 0. In the inner loop, we add the elements of the current row to the sum variable. Finally, we use the printf function to display the sum of the current row on the screen.
  9. We use another nested for loop to calculate the sum of each column of the matrix. In each iteration of the outer loop, we reset the sum variable to 0. In the inner loop, we add the elements of the current column to the sum variable. Finally, we use the printf function to display the sum of the current column on the screen.

Conclusion:

We have successfully written a C program to find the sum of each row and column of a matrix. This program can be useful in various applications where we need to perform matrix operations.

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